Alexander the Great: Brilliance and Brutality

History with Heart of Dakota

Who was Alexander the Great? 

Conqueror, explorer, leader, and visionary. These are just a few of the words that describe Alexander the Great. Born the son of legendary warrior-king Philip II of Macedonia, Alexander went on to outshine his father.  Philip transformed Macedonia from an unremarkable country to a ruling power in Greece; Alexander made Macedonia the ruling power in the entire known world. His conquests would stretch the Macedonian empire from the mountains of his homeland, to the sands of Egypt, to the expanses of Persia, all the way to the banks of the River Beas in India.

Personality of a Genius 

Alexander was a genius in more ways than one. First, his grasp of military tactics was unequaled in his day. He perfected the use of the phalanx – a tactic which his father had introduced. The phalanx was an infantry formation where soldiers grouped tightly together with each man’s shield protecting himself and his neighbor. In addition to this, each man also carried an 18-20 foot pike which he would thrust outwards from the shield wall. (Wasson) In a time where armies usually fought in a haphazard manner depending on sheer force of numbers to win, the phalanx gave Alexander’s soldiers a huge advantage. Oftentimes, enemy soldiers would simply break off his phalanxes like water off a rock. In addition to this, Alexander had distinct knack for sensing his enemy’s weakest position and massing his men to exploit it. Therefore, when his phalanxes came crashing through there was usually no stopping them.

Second, Alexander was a genius when it came to leading his men. He routinely made a point of leading the charge in battle rather than staying back in safety. Initially, he also insisted on sharing his men’s hardships. For instance, while marching his troops through the desert, according to biographer Peter Green, “…when a helmetful [sic] of muddy water had been found for him in some nearby gully – but no more was to be had – he laughed, thanked the donor, and then tipped the water out into the sand. So extraordinary was the effect of this action that the water wasted by Alexander was as good as a drink from every man in the army.” (434) Alexander lead by example, as all great leaders do. When his men saw him facing and overcoming the same challenges they faced, it inspired greatness in them as well.

Fatal Flaws

Nonetheless, Alexander was far from perfect. “Like many brilliant men,” historian John Gunther writes, “he was unstable…he ran from one extreme to another…” (46) While he could be caring and understanding, he also could be irrational and violent. He had a burning temper which resulted in him murdering some of his most faithful soldiers, such as Clitus and Parmenion. Also, during his final years he firmly believed himself to be descended from the Greek god Zeus. Those who did not acknowledge this were executed. (Gunther 138-139) Sadly, with no god to serve except himself, Alexander – once great – ended his life in drunkenness and confusion.

Lasting Impressions

Even though Alexander’s life was dramatically short (he only lived to be 32!) what he accomplished in that time has had repercussions that affect us to this day. His use of soldiers as disciplined units formed the gold standard in military tactics for hundreds of years afterward. In addition, by bringing many different countries under one empire, he spread the use of a universal language – Greek. Many scholars believe this was instrumental in spreading the Gospel 400 years later. He also founded many different cities – some of which remain to this day. (Many of these he named Alexandria, after himself.) Ultimately, much like God had used prior civilizations and kings to carry out His purpose in history, God used Alexander the Great to mold the world according to His own plan.

Which HOD guides can you find Alexander the Great in? 

Alexander the Great can be encountered in several of Heart of Dakota’s guides! You can find him in Little Hearts, Preparing Hearts, Creation to Christ, World Geography, and World History. You can also find a more in-depth study of him in John Gunther’s book Alexander the Great, which students can read in the extension package for Creation to Christ.

Bibliography 

Green, P. Alexander of Macedon, 356-323 B.C. (University of California Press, 2013).

Gunther, J. Alexander the Great. (Sterling Publishing, 2007).

Wasson, D.L. The Army of Alexander the Great. (Ancient History Encyclopedia, 2014). 

Is Bible history covered in World History?

Dear Carrie

Is Bible history covered in World History?

Is there mostly a secular historical focus in the Heart of Dakota’s World History guide? Or, is there a good amount of content on Israel and the Hebrews? My 13 year-old daughter is finishing Missions to Modern Marvels. She really feels sad that she can’t remember much about Creation to Christ (CTC) years ago. I was contemplating going back and reviewing all of this with her. Or, will she hit it again in World History? For example, she doesn’t remember much about the 12 Tribes, the destruction of the temple, their exile, etc. It wouldn’t be hard to go through each page of her CTC notebook to refresh her memory. However, it might give her peace knowing that it will come up again in a couple of years. Come to think of it, does Heart of Dakota’s World Geography cover that material at all? Thanks!

Sincerely,

“Ms. Wondering If Bible History Is Covered in World History”

Dear “Ms. Wondering If Bible History Is Covered in World History,”

The Archaeology Book covers ancient Biblical civilizations, especially the geography of the Bible Lands, in the World Geography Guide quite well. There is also coverage of the Hebrew nation and the Twelve Tribes integrated within that. The World History Guide goes deeper into Biblical history. It definitely studies the fuller history of the Hebrew nation and the rise of Israel. Several resources focus on Old and New Testament history, albeit in the scope of a one-year tour through World History. When combined with the Old Testament Bible Survey course in the World History Guide, excellent coverage of Old Testament History is provided.

With the Biblical content in each of the guides, there is no way the high school guides could be viewed as secular.

Of course, there is also coverage of New Testament history in the World History Guide as well, with the pinnacle leading to the resurrection of Christ. Additionally, a New Testament Survey course is planned for the American History Guide the following year to more deeply study the New Testament. With the Biblical content contained in each of the guides, there is no way that either of the high school guides could be viewed as secular guides. In fact, I make a point when writing the guides to be sure that they are steeped in God’s Word and contain Biblical history as much as possible!

Together, the World Geography and the World History guides give a wonderful foundation in the geography and history of the Bible.

I share this to give you a fuller picture of what is ahead, and pray that your child will be as richly blessed by the upcoming guides as our own boys have – and are being blessed. You can easily wait to cover the areas you mentioned once you get to the World Geography and World History Guide if desired. Together, the high school guides give a wonderful foundation in the geography and history of the Bible. I agree that these topics are too important to be missed, or to be passed over lightly! That is why they come around again and are given a deeper look as the kiddos get older! This was a great question to ask! Thank you for asking it!

Blessings,

Carrie

Follow-Up Response from “Ms. Wondering If Bible History Is Covered in World History”

Thank you for your response! This really helps me in thinking through our next few years! It gives me a peace about covering this important time once again. I think I might have learned (and retained) more than my daughter with our first pass through Ancients, since she was so young. I am thankful and excited to spend more time in that period of history! Since the high school guide is written for high school credit, I was a little concerned that the history might have more of a secular slant. Thank you for working so hard to intertwine secular with Biblical history throughout high school!

 

Why I Love Pride and Prejudice.

History with Heart of Dakota

What’s so special about Jane Austen?

When it comes to classic literature, Jane Austen’s books will always have a special place in my heart. What makes her easier to read than, say, Sir Walter Scott, is that her lively sense of humor transcends time periods and is still easily-understandable in today’s age. Where most authors of her time kowtow to the societal structures of the Regency Era, Jane enjoys poking fun at their foibles. As she says through the voice of Mr. Bennet in Pride and Prejudice, “For what do we live, but to make sport of our neighbors, and laugh at them in our turn?” (Austen 407)

Nonetheless, she is not so slap-happy with her sarcasm that she pokes fun at everything indiscriminately. She paints true virtues in positive tones and portrays wrongdoing without making light of it. As a rule, she respects what is respectable, detests what is detestable, and laughingly pokes fun at everything in between.

Another strength of Jane Austen’s literature is that her characters feel unshakably-real. Rather than being flat, the majority of them have relatable strengths or weaknesses. The way they think and act seems uncannily familiar – even to 21st century readers.

These qualities are all especially evident in Jane Austen’s magnum opus: Pride and Prejudice.

Historical backdrop

In today’s world of empowered women, it is difficult to imagine the different world that was the Regency Era. At that time, the options women of low social standing had were quite limited. While men were able to get an education at universities such as Cambridge, women were unable to attend such universities. Also, aside from employment as governesses, there were extremely restricted avenues for women to earn money through employment. (Even Jane Austen herself, though she earned some money through the sale of her novels, was very much the exception and not the norm.)

Finally, there was little-to-no chance of women being able to inherit an estate. (This would only be allowed in rare cases by privilege of nobility.) Therefore, in order to obtain financial security, women were expected to marry – and marry well. In the midst of all this – at a time where ladies were expected to be ornamental and materialistically-minded – Pride and Prejudice’s main character enters the scene.

Elizabeth Bennet

Elizabeth Bennet is easily one of my favorite protagonists of all time. While she generally stays within the boundaries of civility expected of her as a lady, she is teasingly-defiant of some of society’s sillier conventions. She is not so reverent of social politics that she is afraid to laugh at their inconsistencies. Rather, she is irreverently-unimpressed by the distinctions which title and rank alone could afford a person. She differs greatly from Regency Era expectations of women to be seen and not heard – even going so far as to tease some of the novel’s most formidable gentry!

Nonetheless, Elizabeth shows good sense and intelligence where it is necessary. Though she is a flawed character who has weaknesses like any other person, she readily admits where she was wrong and does not remain stubborn and unyielding for long. As a reader from modern times, I find Elizabeth Bennet to be a breath of fresh air from the traditional heroines of books from that era. Not so progressive as to be obnoxious, Elizabeth Bennet nevertheless exists in a manner that outclasses her times.

Timeless themes

Another reason Pride and Prejudice is so timeless is because its themes are still relevant in today’s culture. A key theme is to never judge someone based on your first impression. (Fun fact: Jane Austen originally titled the book “First Impressions” before settling on “Pride and Prejudice”.)

Another key theme is the wisdom of choosing who you marry carefully. This is especially relevant today! Many young people (myself included!) have questions about relationships on their minds. They want to see what a healthy relationship looks like. They want to see what character traits to look for in someone they might date/court. Tired of being hoodwinked by Hollywood, they  hunger to know what love really looks like.

This, my friends, is where Pride and Prejudice shines! It is far more than a manners and morality tale; it is an honest look at what character traits make a man or woman. In the novel, you see the good, the bad, and the ugly. You see stupidity, selfishness, and pride put on full display. But you also see character traits reminiscent of the Proverbs 31 woman and the Ephesians 5 man shining for all to see.

Ultimately, Pride and Prejudice perceptively demonstrates that while marriage is a huge blessing, rushing headlong into marriage often does more harm than good. “Marriage alone is not a virtue,” Jane Austen seems to counsel us. “It’s who you marry that makes or breaks your success.”

Where in HOD can you find Pride and Prejudice?

You can find Pride and Prejudice in the English credit section of our US History II high school curriculum. For those who want to dive deeper into the Pride and Prejudice experience, there is an option that includes an excellent BBC miniseries adaption starring Colin Firth and Jennifer Ehle. (Personally, I would highly-recommend seeing it; it’s true to the book and the acting is FANTASTIC!)

References:

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. (Simon & Schuster, Inc., 2004).

Breathe Life into History by Meeting ‘Its’ People

More Than a Charlotte Mason Moment

Breathe Life into History by Meeting ‘Its’ People

Oh, it is cold outside! Why don’t you come right in? Let me take your coat, and please do have a seat. Yes, right here, by the fire! Here is a cup of cocoa, and one for me as well. Oh, and what’s that I hear? Ahhh, a knocking on the door. Our guest has arrived! Let us see who it is we will meet today, shall we? Oh my! You will never believe who it is!  _______, come right in and join us! Today is the day we make each other’s acquaintance! I daresay at the end of this time spent together, we may remember each other – always. You see, it’s time once again in this Heart of Dakota, Charlotte Mason education to breathe life into history by meeting ‘its’ people. Oh, let’s DO begin, shall we?!?

People matter, in life and in history – just ask Charlotte Mason!

Let him, on the contrary, linger pleasantly over the history of a single man, a short period, until he thinks the thoughts of that man, is at home in the ways of that period. Though he is reading and thinking of the lifetime of a single man, he is really getting intimately acquainted with the history of a whole nation for a whole age. – Charlotte Mason (Home Education, Volume 1, p. 280)

People matter, in life and in history – just ask Carrie Austin!

The Charlotte-Mason style of learning is based on getting to know people and/or events in history. This is accomplished through the sharing of interesting stories of people’s lives or interesting anecdotes. Often times, these stories or anecdotes stay with a child over time. This Charlotte Mason approach to history allows children to make connections between people and events over time, rather than having us as parents make the connections for them. In Heart of Dakota‘s guides, your children learn people matter, in both life and in history!

Let me introduce you to so-and-so!

Your children will meet many people in history, as they journey chronologically through time, and these meetings are memorable! This approach to history is a staple of a Charlotte Mason form of education. One comment I never grow tired of hearing, that I have heard often, is parents’ sharing their children who formerly disliked history have had a complete turnaround to become children who now absolutely love history. They credit switching to Heart of Dakota‘s approach to history as being the turning point. Rather than dry textbooks with endless lists of dates, events, and names to memorize and forget, Heart of Dakota says ‘Let me introduce you to so-and-so!’ People go down in history for many different reasons, good and bad. But no matter why they have made their mark on history, learning history with a focus on ‘its’ people is both fascinating and memorable.

In Closing – An Endearing Charlotte Mason Quote

Children of seven are promoted to Form IA in which they remain for a couple of years… while the readings in IB are confined to the first third of the book embodying the simpler and more direct histories, those in IA go on to the end of the volume and children learn at any rate to love English history. “I’d a lot sooner have history than my dinner,” said a sturdy boy of seven by no means inclined to neglect his dinner. – Charlotte Mason (Home Education, Volume 6, p. 171)

In Christ,
Julie

 

World War I and Missions to Modern Marvels

History with Heart of Dakota:

Setting the stage

Just over 100 years ago, World War I ended. To some, it was known as “The Great War.” To others, it was known as “the war to end all wars.” To some, its end represented a hope for increased world peace. To others, World War I was the death-knell for 20th century dreams of a utopia here on earth. Whether for good or ill, there is no doubt that this titanic struggle left its mark on humanity.

War like never before

World War I was humanity’s first truly global conflict. The theaters of war ranged from the muddy trenches and ruined villages of France, the shimmering sands of Arabia, the tumultuous coastline of Gallipoli, the brisk seas of the North Atlantic, the alpine fortresses of Italy, and the wintery steppes of Russia during the last days of the Tsars. For 4 long years, multinational soldiers belonging to the Allied Powers fought bitterly with Central Powers forces on each of these battlefronts.

World War I also marked a crossroads between tradition and innovation. Previous wars had been fought with an extremely infantry-centric mindset, with mounted cavalry and artillery giving support. When the war began in 1914, generals on both sides expected a war of quick maneuver. Indeed, many soldiers expected to be home by Christmas. But what no one had counted on was the rapid development of new technology that would forever change the face of warfare.

The war on the ground

The way that ground forces were employed during World War I were shaped by several new threats that soldiers in previous wars never had to deal with. At the top of this list of new hazards was the machine gun. Capable of firing several hundred rounds per minute, a well-placed machine gun nest crewed by two or three men could effectively gun down hundreds of advancing enemy soldiers. Since the average soldier was still equipped with a bolt-action rifle that needed to be cocked before each shot, he didn’t stand a chance out in the open.

This situation lead to a stalemate where neither foe could successfully advance against the other. So, each side constructed trench networks measuring hundreds of miles, so their soldiers could hold the line in relative safety. Relative safety, of course, was still dangerous. Artillery easily shelled soldiers hiding in the mud with shrapnel and something far more insidious…poison gas. Snipers and machine gunners made quick work of anyone foolish to poke their heads above the trenches. Finally, there was also the new threat of being strafed from the air by aircraft. Truly no place was safe for the infantry on the ground.

The war at sea

The war at sea, too, was distinctly different than in previous conflicts. Hitherto, fleets had relied on large surface warships to win battles on the high seas. With World War I came the advent of an entirely new class of naval vessel: the submarine. Submarines could slip through blockades with ease and attack enemy ships without warning. The Germans, especially, took this form of warfare to new levels. Suddenly, it was a very real possibility to have German U-boats lurking off the coastline of Great Britain…or even America.

The war in the air

World War I also marked the dawn of an entirely new theater of war: the skies. Only 11 years after the mankind’s first powered flight, aircraft had evolved to the point where they could be utilized by the military. Airplanes represented a paradox in military innovation. They were on the bleeding edge of military technology, yet still remarkably primitive by our standards. They were capable of flying miles behind enemy lines, yet they were extremely vulnerable to structural failures and accidents. In an hour-by-hour sense, aircraft pilots were safer than the soldiers hunkered down in the trenches, yet a new pilot’s life expectancy could fall to as low as 11 days. Nonetheless, many brave pioneers took to the skies in these aircraft that stood as much chance of killing them as they did their enemies.

Where in Missions to Modern Marvels is World War I covered? 

Since this pivotal war in history is often forgotten about, we want to ensure our students have a good grasp of how and why this war happened as it did. We highlight World War I in several of our guides, but for the sake of time, today I’ll only look at how we cover it in Missions to Modern Marvels. So, without further ado, here is a breakdown of books in this guide which cover World War I: 

  • All American History Volume II: touches on the causes of the war and the international effects.
  • The Story of the World Volume IV: takes a narrative look at the primary people and events of the war.
  • Great Events in American History: briefly outlines the defining characteristics of the war.
  • Book of Great American Speeches: includes President Woodrow Wilson’s full speech asking Congress to formally declare war on Germany.
  • Draw and Write Through History – the 20th Century: succinctly sets the stage and includes drawing lessons that teach students to draw a WW1 soldier, a submarine, and a biplane.
  • War Horse: takes readers on a journey through both sides of the fighting through the eyes of a fictional British war horse named Joey.
  • Angel on the Square: depicts the last days of the Tsars through the eyes of a fictional Russian girl named Katya living in the palace during the war.
  • Soldier Dog: offers a fictional (but distinctly-relatable) account of life in the trenches as a messenger dog handler during the war.

(We also cover World War I briefly in Preparing Hearts For His Glory and Hearts for Him Through High School: World History, as well as more extensively in Hearts for Him Through High School: US History II.)

In closing

In my opinion, understanding World War I is crucial to understanding modern history. It marked the fall of empires and the ascension of America as a global power. It redrew borders and altered the face of warfare forever. Nonetheless, as far-reaching as these consequences are, World War I’s effects are not limited to mere historical fact. It proved for all time that there is no hope for peace on earth based solely on mankind’s efforts. The 20th century began as mankind’s declaration that social perfection was in fact attainable. As early as 1914, those dreams were proved to be hollow. The sound of whistling shells replaced the hopeful songs of peace, and bullet casings replaced the pens of statesmen.

If hope rests not with mankind, where then is it to be found? The answer is the same today as it was in 1914, and as it was since the beginning of time: “Turn to me and be saved, all the ends of the earth! For I am God, and there is no other.” – Isaiah 45:22

The legacy of World War I cries out that only in God is there hope for fallen humanity. Without Him, the best and brightest intentions still fall short, and peace cannot prevail. But with Him, there abides a true hope. A hope that cannot be extinguished even by the shock and flash of shells. Death claimed the lives of millions during that war just as death claimed the life of God’s own Son on the cross. Yet He emerged from the grave triumphant. Christ alone has overcome this world; so too shall we if we place our hope in Him.

In Christ,

Cole Austin